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1. Why so difficult to learn Chinese through Pinyin?

Without a Chinese-speaking environment Chinese children are involved, it will be very difficult for a foreigner to learn Chinese well only by Pinyin, namely by pronunciation. Even though he can learn some, he will usually get more and more confused, and finally cannot master this language or speak well. This is associated with the following reasons:

1. There are 4 tones in Chinese. A pronunciation usually has 4 different tones signifying different meanings. As the mother tongue of foreigners has no such pronunciation rule, the foreigners are not sensitive to the tones and cannot easily tell the difference between tones. They will take different tones for the same pronunciation and get confused in the understanding. That meant they cannot speak the correct Chinese.

2. There are homophones in Chinese. They are the different characters with the same pronunciation but express different meanings. Without learning characters and understanding these different meanings from character patterns, but learning only by pronunciation, one will find the same pronunciation has multiple entirely different meanings. This will confuse learners and greatly add to the difficulty of learning.

3. There are some other polyphones in Chinese. A character can have different meanings and pronunciations. It will be very hard to master them only from pronunciation.